Abstract art or abstractions is an artistic style that presents color strokes, geometric figures, signs, etc. and it is not ruled by the normal perception of things. It was born around 1910 and it meant the end of cubism.
Abstractions substitutes the symbolic representation for a more visual and autonomous language, charged with own meanings.
At the begining, abstract art was a motive of great polemics, but afterwards has been transformed in an inexhaustible source for the artists in the XX and now XXI century.
Expressionist abstraction: It stays away completely from figures and y completely based on emotions, in the expression of color and in the psychological manifestations of the artist. Some of the representative artists are: Vasilij Kandinskij, Paul Klee, Arman2do Barrios, Hugo Baptista, Francisco Hung, Enrique Ferrer, among others.
Starting in the second war of the XX century beging the apogee of expressionist abstraction in the United States of America. Many European artists migrate there to scape Nazis and war. There is good sponsorship and programs to help art and the artists and it acquires it’s own culture. the term expressionist abstraction was given to the most vigorous, sweeping and biggest in size of some of the residents artists in North America.
Neoplasticism or geometric abstraction: Considers artworks as a metaphor to reality. It is an art that surpasses emotion and acts with a mathematical rigour. Some of the representative artists: Mercedes Pardo, Pedro Briceño among others.
Constructivism: Tridimensional artistic expression, seeded by Vladimir Tatlin, Alexander Rodchenko and Casimir Malévitsch.
Informalism: Demands the materialism of the painting and the variety and possible techniques. Assumes the color as matter and subject of the art work, therefore it rejects the figurative and non figurative form. some of the major representatives are: Jean Fautrier, Hans Hartung, Georges Matchieu, Alberto Burri, Antonio Saura, Arschile Gorky, Franz Kline, Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, etc.
Lyric abstraction: The compositions of this abstract form have as a main theme, the peace, balance and harmony, some of the representatives: Alirio Oramas, Ramón Vásquez Brito.
Protest movement founded by Venezuelans in Paris, we can find the following artists here: Alejandro Otero, Mateo Manuare, Pascual Navarro, Herminy Perán, Rubén Núñez, Guillermo Peres, Luis Guevara Moreno y Carlos Gonzáles Bogen. All of them came together with abstraction purposes.
The dissidents criticised the traditional culture existing at the time in Venezuela, but they did not spoke about cultural reforms.
Abstrac art in America
Ending the 1940’s, abstract art experienced an important reborn in America with action painting and the colourfield painting.
Represented with Jackson Pollock. The finality of the artistic style was to give composition, to the trace and the color with a violent emotional charge, the artist lets go of the impulses, that is the translated to the canvas with any control.
Characterised for the violence in the gesture, in the color, big size paintings, plenty of times worked on the floor to be able to reach every possible angle. The picture has no center or a defined ending.
Other than Jason Pollocl, other representatives of the action painting are: Kline, who painted applying vigorous black strokes over white surfaces; Koonig, who went alternative from figurative to abstract; Tobey, painted pictures with an infinity of indecipherable symbols about dark backgrounds with white line nets that emanates a deep silence of profound emotion.
Color Field Painting
Characterised for the big flat surfaces combined with color without symbolic or gestural elements, creating big space and atmosphere. Representative artists in this style are: Newman, Reinhardt y Still.
After 1960, this tendencies where substituted for the minimalistic expression, that sewed up a new period and interest for geometry and structure.
At the end of the 1960’s a new development of an abstraction based on the analysis of its own components was born.